Working Group Activities related to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III)

  • Arctic Freshwater Synthesis Meeting, Stockholm, Sweden - May 2014
  • Planning for MOSAiC – the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate, various locations - 2014/2015
  • ISAR-4/ICARPIII session B07: Atmosphere-ocean-ice interactions and aspects related to a future, seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean, Toyama, Japan - April 2015

For more information please see the ICARP III website


International cooperation in biogeochemical studies in the Siberian Shelves Seas

When: 27-28 January 2016 I Where: Kiel, Germany

The workshop was held in order to bring together specialists working from widely different perspectives on biogeochemical studies in the Siberian shelf seas. The goals were to coordinate future efforts in preparation of expeditions to the Siberian shelf seas, to explore possibilities of cooperation in future studies by exchange of data and samples, and to develop a plan for engagement of young scientists.

The workshop was hosted by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research in Kiel,
Germany, on January 27 and 28, 2016, and organized by the "Secretariat Laptev Sea
System", following the conference of the Russian-German project "The Transpolar System of the Arctic Ocean". In the workshop, 31 scientists and 6 early career scientists from 10 countries participated (see Appendix, list of participants).

The program included (i) plenary talks about ongoing programs with objectives, institutions and scientists involved, expeditions, field methods, and major results, (ii) cruise plans, wishes and dreams, (iii) fields of synergy and overarching themes, (iv) gaps in knowledge, and (v) new opportunities for cooperation in trace element research with Russia.

Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff

Heidemarie Kassens

Workshop Report

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed observations of Upper Halocline distribution along the continental margin made from the international, multidisciplinary investigation of climate-cryosphere carbon interaction in the eastern Siberian Arctic Ocean, Swedish-Russian-US Research Cooperation (SWERUS).

• Difference in oceanographic and biological responses to dramatic loss in Arctic sea ice observed in the Pacific Arctic region via Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC’s hydrographic and biogeochemical surveys was discussed.  

• Discussed the investigations of physical, chemical and biological processes and fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) in the Arctic Ocean carried out by GEOTRACES.


5th Polar Marine Diatom Workshop

When: 19-24 July 2015 I Where: Salmanca, Spain

The Polar Marine Diatom Workshops (PMDW) were born from the need for a forum that would incite exchange of taxonomic skills and associated new techniques as well as providing an excellent training ground for students to receive guidance from experienced diatomists. Since 2005, the workshop has become a successful biannual event, bringing polar diatomists together for exchange of new ideas, sharing of recent results/data and fostering future collaborations enabling researchers from around the world to produce quality science. The 5th Polar Marine Diatom Workshop was held on July 19-24, in Salmanca, Spain. This workshop featured microscope sessions with equal emphasis on Neogene and Quaternary as in the past, but a special emphasis was devoted to Holocene Climatic optimum and the degalciation, addressing biostratigraphic, taxonomic, paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic issues. A special session was dedicated to the shadow's diatoms, those that live at the lower photic zone and are a good indicator of water column stratification (Rhizosolenia spp.)
Overall, the workshop succeed in achieving the following aims: 1) in transferring sound taxonomic skills and exchange knowledge relative to modern and fossil diatom records of polar regions, 2) in engaging the international marine phytoplankton and paleontological communities and raise the research profile and opportunity for on-going training of students and researchers and 3) in bringing about opportunities for a project development and student exchange between laboratories focusing on recent developments or on-going enigma in the field.

María Angeles Bárcena

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed the development of more complete biostratigraphic proxies and of robust proxies for paleoceanography.

• Discussed evolution of sea-ice communities and sea-ice extent and timing of climatic events in Polar Regions.

• Discussed the building of biogeochemical coupled ocean-atmospheric dynamic models that aim to include species ecology, abundance and biomass data.

ESSAS Annual Science Meeting (ASM) Symposium, “The Role of Ice in the Sea”

When: June 15-17 2015 I Where: Washington, USA

The 2015 ESSAS Annual Science Meeting (ASM) Symposium was co-hosted by the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences and the University of Washington, held in the Sea Fishery Sciences Building, University of Washington from June 15-17, 2015. As the meeting’s chief topic was “the Role of Ice in the Sea,” four themes were explored during the Symposium: Humans, Ice and the Sea in the Subarctic and Arctic Past, the Role of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Subarctic, the Ecological Role of Tidewater Glaciers, and Social Scientific Investigations of Changing Sea Ice Conditions.
The “Humans, Ice and the Sea in the Subarctic and Arctic Past” session provided a historical framework for the consideration of contemporary ecological dynamics surrounding subarctic and arctic ice and marine ecology including human integration in the evolution of these systems. The largest session, “The Role of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Subarctic,” focused on the multiple roles of sea ice in the Arctic and the Sub-Arctic seas, including its effects on the physical and biological structure of these regions, which shapes their food webs from plankton to fish, birds, and mammals. The extent and nature of sea ice in the Arctic has been rapidly changing, affecting air-ice-sea fluxes with both regional and global consequences. “The Ecological Role of Tidewater Glaciers” session explored the role of tidewater glaciers in marine ecosystems, including the fjords of Alaska, Greenland, and Svalbard. The “Social Scientific Investigations of Changing Sea Ice Conditions” session promoted interaction among social scientists and also provided insights to natural scientists on how their research can best contribute to a better understanding of the importance of sea ice dynamics for resource users and communities in a wider social and economic context.

Franz Mueter

Scientific Highlights

• Presentations explored the use of marine sediment records to elucidate large-scale changes in ocean temperature, sea ice cover, and ocean productivity since the last glacial, including its impacts on the migrations and settlement patterns of early people as inferred from archaeological evidence.

• Sea ice influences biogeochemical processes including the flux of CO2 into the ocean, leading to increasing acidification. Ice algae make up a significant portion of the primary production, especially in the high Arctic, where changes in the extent of first year versus multi-year ice may be altering their role. Changes in the timing of the melting of the sea ice also influence when ice algae become available to zooplankton in spring.

• The existence of sea ice impacts commercial, recreational, and subsistence harvesters through numerous avenues. The nature of the marine food web is significantly impacted by sea ice, so that future declines in sea ice may change the resources available to different communities, potentially altering the mix, spatial distribution, and abundance of species present.

• The ways fishers and hunters respond to changes may influence the species they pursue and the ecosystem as a whole. In addition, those responses will affect and be affected by a range of social and economic factors, likely creating a complex webs of interactions rather than simple and predictable responses to changes in sea ice.

MWG Workshop “Atmosphere-ocean-ice interactions and aspects related to a future, seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean”” at the ICARP III Conference

When: 23-30 April 2015 I Where: Toyama, Japan

“Atmosphere-ocean-ice interactions and aspects related to a future, seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean” was a session featured in the Fourth International Symposium on Arctic Research (ISAR-4) and the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III) during the 2015 Arctic Science Summit Week (ASSW) in Toyama Japan, from April 28-29.  
The first sub-session addressed the energy exchange between the Arctic and lower latitudes, the different energy budgets in the Arctic as well as the effects of aerosols in an Arctic with reduced ice cover. The second sub-session was devoted to smaller scale observational studies of heat exchange between ice, ocean and atmosphere in the marginal ice zone and in the high Arctic, using aircraft, autonomous gliders and icebreakers. The third sub-session was mostly on atmospheric processes with three talks addressing respectively the creation, the characteristics and the climatology of Polar lows in the Nordic Seas and in the Japan Sea.  
The next sub-session addressed the freshwater balance and the stratification of the Arctic Ocean, the transfer of freshwater between solid and liquid phase, and how it varies seasonally and over longer periods. The final sub-session presented studies on the effects of different forcing, wind or buoyancy, on Arctic Ocean circulation.

Bert Rudels

Scientific Highlights

• The possible effects of increased aerosol release connected with a reduced ice cover on the radiative forcing were discussed and found to be smaller than expected due to increased liquid precipitation.

• The atmospheric boundary layer over leads around Svalbard, in Storfjorden as well as north of Svalbard was investigated by aircraft and a study of ocean variability in the marginal ice zone in the western Arctic using gliders was reported.

• The circulation and the effects of the Atlantic water on the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean were described, concentrating on eddies in the Arctic Ocean and their importance for the large-scale circulation, an example of which is how the halocline can be maintained.


Big Black Box

When: 18-23 January 2015 I Where: Tromsø, Norway

Arctic marine environments may experience darkness for up to ten months a year depending on sea ice cover and snow depth. The extended period of darkness, known as the polar night, may limit organism survival and reproductive success because of the associated food limitation. A long overwintering period and a brief growing season are likely the main barriers for “temperate/lower latitude” species to sustain populations in the Arctic because they lack the life history adaptations of high-Arctic species that allow them to cope with such extreme conditions. However, our knowledge on winter ecology is extremely poor in comparison to ecological processes during the growing season. Gathering additional information on polar night ecology and processes is crucial, especially in light of expected impacts of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems. This three-day workshop will convene an international group of experts to develop a white paper on the existing winter ecology knowledge of Arctic marine organisms, to identify the most critical knowledge gaps, and to prepare a proposal for a new international initiative/program focusing on polar night ecology and winter processes.

Janne E. Søreide

Workshop Report

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed species active during winter: small zooplankton size fractions (e.g. Oithona, Microcalanus spp., Pseudocalanus spp.), which need to be studied in greater detail as information on them is limited year-round, copepods, which actively feed and reproduce in January-February in Kongsfjorden (high numbers of nauplii found mid-winter) but at a lower level than during spring and Calanus, which ascends already in November in Svalbard fjords and are active before the primary production starts.

• Discussed recent polar night studies on zooplankton ecology (see e.g. (Daase et al. 2014; Webster et al. 2015) which demonstrated that marine zooplankton are not necessarily quiescent during the polar night.

• Discussed the need for studies of polar-night physiology and energy use combined with knowledge of behaviour and life cycle strategies as this will improve understanding of the trade-offs inherent in the annual routines of polar zooplankton as well as the role of the polar night in shaping the schedule of activities also at other times of the year.

• Agreed that the boundary layers sea ice - sea water, and sea water – sea floor, as well as any stratification of the water column would potentially be places for food/organisms to concentrate in winter.


Working Group Activities related to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III)


Seasonal Ice Cover in the Arctic Ocean: changes and consequences

When: 20-21 October 2014 I Where: Woods Hole, USA

Workshop Report

Greenland Ice Sheet / Ocean Interaction

When: 8-9 December 2014 I Where: Bremerhaven, Germany

Workshop Report

For more information on both activities please see the ICARP III website

2nd Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) Data Workshop

When: 29-31 October 2014 I Where: Seattle, USA

The 2nd Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) Data Workshop involved the evaluation of continued international data collections on up to five DBO lines seasonally, discussion of the current submission of data to the DBO data sharing sites, the development of publication plans, and coordination of future activities. The workshop provided a forum to present findings from the 2010-2014 DBO field program, discuss the results of data being posted to the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) workspace site for collaborative evaluation while data is prepared for national archives, and determine next steps for conveying the results of the DBO activities to the broader scientific community.

Workshop Report

Scientific Highlights

• Presented results from the 2010-2014 DBO field program and determine a basis for multidisciplinary papers to showcase results of the DBO international effort.

• Evaluated the DBO data submission effort through the AOOS-DBO data workspace, EOL open data site, and discuss linkage to national archives.

• Determined the location of new DBO transect lines in the Beaufort Sea, western Chukchi Sea, and possibly other international lines, such as in the northern Barents Sea.

Ecology of circumpolar Arctic Gadids Workshop

When: April 2014 I Where: Copenhagen, Denmark

An international workshop on the ecology of circumpolar Arctic gadids (Boreogadus saida and Arctogadus spp.) was convened during the ESSAS Annual Science Meeting on April 8-9 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The workshop was attended by over 60 scientists from 10 countries and featured a poster presentation with 10 posters on Tuesday evening and 17 oral presentations on Wednesday. Contributions highlighted recent advances in our understanding of the ecology of these important species, which occupy a central role in Arctic marine food webs. Abstracts and selected presentations will be available at the ESSAS website ( The goal of the workshop was to bring together scientists from around the circumpolar Arctic to focus exclusively on the ecology of Arctic gadids and, by all accounts, it was an unqualified success thanks to the thoughtful contributions of all presenters and other participants. We thank the POLARISATION project (Research Council of Norway) and the International Arctic Science Committee for providing generous travel support and the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, for hosting the workshop. A workshop summary will be published in the IMBER Newsletter and a special issue in Polar Biology is in preparation (Guest Editors: Franz Mueter, Jasmine Nahrgang, John Nelson, Jorgen Borge). Manuscripts are due by December 31, 2014 with an anticipated publication date in late 2015.

Workshop Report

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed the geographical distribution of Arctic gadids, such as Polar cod, B. saida with an analysis of microsatellite DNA, which suggested that populations in eastern Canada and West Greenland are distinct from those in the Pacific Arctic, with smaller-scale structure separating populations in the Chukchi and US Beaufort Sea from those in the Canadian Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf.

• Discussed recent advances in under-ice sampling which have confirmed that B. saida are ubiquitous under first yea rice in the Arctic basin, where they occur in relatively low desnities and presumably feed on sea-ice associated amphipods such as Apherusa glacialis.  

• Discussed spawning of B. saida which occurs primarily in shallow, nearshore areas as inferred from the distribution of larvae. High larval concentrations imply that spawning concentrations in the Pacific Arctic occur in the eastern Chukchi Sea and in the southeast Beaufort Sea.


Internal mixing processes in the Arctic Ocean Workshop

When: 21-22 October 2013 I Where: Woods Hole, US

The MWG arranged an open workshop on „Internal mixing processes in the Arctic Ocean and their importance for water mass formation and heat and freshwater fluxes“ on 21 - 22 October 2013 in Woods Hole in connection with the FAMOS (Forum for Arctic Modeling and Observational Synthesis) workshop held on 23 - 25 October. The rational for the meeting was that the Arctic Ocean is a low energy environment in which mixing and water mass transformation processes could be different compared to most of the world ocean where mechanically generated turbulence predominates. Although often invoked, few hard numbers about the efficiency of these internal processes exist. The aim of the workshop was to identify and examine these mechanisms and determine if they play a major role in the physics and the circulation of the Arctic Ocean. The workshop included invited presentations on the different processes followed by discussions. Insights gained during the workshop will be applied and tested in the plenary and group discussions on the following FAMOS meeting.

Workshop Agenda

Workshop Report

Scientific Highlights

• Identified and examined the mechanisms that determine the mixing and water mass transformations of the deep Arctic Ocean, determining if they play a major role in the physics and the circulation of the Arctic Ocean.

• Discussed the mixing of the directly forced mixing by wind and atmospheric motion in the Arctic ocean mixing processes; the discussion considered the following questions: Is this weakness due to the presence of a permanent ice cover, or to the characteristics of the atmospheric forcing, or is it primarily due to the strong stratification caused by the excess input of freshwater?

• Discussed the possibility of ice cover in the Arctic Ocean becoming seasonal, as opposed to permanent and identified the possible consequences of a seasonal ice cover for the Arctic Ocean mixing processes and for the Arctic in general as one of the urgent themes for Arctic research in the next ten years.

Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) Data Workshop

When: February/March 2013 I Where: Seattle, USA

The dramatic seasonal retreat and thinning of sea ice, record-setting seawater temperatures and multiple observations of biological changes in the Pacific Arctic sector has highlighted the need for understanding ecosystem response to climate forcing. The “Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)” was developed by the international Pacific Arctic Group (PAG) as a change detection array along a latitudinal gradient extending from the northern Bering Sea to the Barrow Arc in the Amerasian Arctic.

A DBO data workshop was held at the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) in Seattle on 27 February-1 March 2013. The meeting brought together scientists and associated project data sets collected during the 2010-2012 DBO pilot effort. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the results, share data sets, develop an international data policy for this observing effort, and organize collaborative publications. The MWG has endorsed the DBO project, and supports development of similar activities in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic.

DBO 2013 data meeting report

Scientific Highlights

• Presented results from the 2010-2012 pilot study and determined a basis for multidisciplinary paper(s) to showcase the DBO international effort.

• Archived metadata with either link to data set in a national archive or submitting the DBO data to common data archive.

• Discussed DBO site criteria and identified NE Chukchi Sea DBO4 line and other DBO lines.  

• Presentations were given on physical and chemical aspects of the Pacific Arctic region and the biological components of the system.


Workshop: Collaboration with ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea)

When: 17-21 September 2012 Where: Bergen, Norway

In 2011, ICES and IASC signed a Letter of Agreement to cooperate. ICES held its annual workshop on September 17-21 in Bergen, Norway and AOSB/MWG was invited to co-host two of the sessions, both dealing with the Arctic. The first session, co-chaired by Dr. Loeng and Dr. Bogi Hansen, focused on the Arctic and North Atlantic from a climate change perspective as they play an important role in the global climate system. The second session, co-chaired by ICES/PICES/ESSAS and AOSB/MWG examined the influence of subarctic inflows on the physical conditions and biology in the Arctic basin and shelves, as well as the role of fluxes of water from the Arctic basin onto the surrounding shallow shelves and into the subarctic. Papers covered multiple trophic levels or investigate biophysical coupling.

For more information see:

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed changes in water masses, heat, and freshwater content in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean.

• Discussed the project Submarine Estimates of Arctic Turbulence Spectra (SEATS), which uses previously unavailable data from UK submarine missions to assess the characteristics of mixed layer and sub-mixed layer variability, especially in ice-covered regions.

• Discussed models which show that the heat transported by the Atlantic inflow in some areas elevates the sea surface temperature to a greater extent than the temperature increase projected for the 21st century. A weakening of the inflow could therefore significantly reduce warming in these areas and might even induce regional cooling, especially in parts of the Nordic seas. An increase in Pacific inflows through the Bering Strait could affect the fate of the sea‐ice cover in the Canada Basin.

Arctic in Rapid Transition | ART

The Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) Initiative is an integrative, international, interdisciplinary, pan‐Arctic network to study the spatial and temporal changes in sea ice cover, ocean circulation and associated physical drivers over multiple timescales to better understand and forecast the impact of these changes on the ecosystems and biogeochemistry of the Arctic Ocean. The ART Initiative was initiated by early career scientists in October 2008 and subsequently endorsed by the Marine Working Group of IASC. ART will be implemented via a three‐phase approach:

  • Phase I: The development of an active international and multidisciplinary network of scientists sharing a common interest in improving our understanding of the implications of sea ice transitions in the Arctic Ocean.
  • Phase II: The coordination of dedicated, multicountry, interdisciplinary field campaigns and data collection activities that would provide input into an integrated modelling effort.
  • Phase III: The synthesis of knowledge including the development of robust scenarios regarding the future state of Arctic marine ecosystems and their role in global processes.

Mentoring and educational programs will be integral to all three phases to help maintain the organic identity of ART as a network led by early‐career scientists. The ART Science Plan was approved by the Marine WG in 2010 and the Implementation Plan in 2011.

For more information go to:

Scientific Highlights


ART Zopot Workshop

The ART Science Plan was approved by the Marine WG in 2010 and the Implementation Plan in 2011. The ART Executive Committee planned its first science symposium from 22 - 26 October 2012 in Sopot, Poland.

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed cross-cutting aspects of Arctic marine sciences, ranging from the physical regime over geological and modern time-scales, to the biogeochemical impact of terrigenous delivery, up to the responses of the carbon cycle, food web efficiency, and to the implications for society.

• Discussed in sub-groups aligned not along disciplines but as diverse ensembles of skills, specialties and experiences key questions that addressed the challenge of integrating paleo0studies with modern observations and numerical modelling.

• Following the philosophy behind ART and APECS, the workshop promoted the active involvement and mentoring of the emerging scientific generation that is progressively playing an increasing role in Arctic science planning and managing. Such framework is essential to allow for capacity building and empowerment within the large cohort of new Arctic scientists recently trained in the wake of the International Polar Year 2007-2009 and other large-scale Arctic programs that took place over the last decade.

Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) Cruise Planning

When: June 25-26, 2012 I Copenhagen

An Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) meeting with the European members of the ART Executive Committee Meeting was held June 25-26, 2012 at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland in Copenhagen (GEUS).

Summary of the ART EC Meeting 2012

Scientific Highlights

• Finalized the expedition proposal for the German RV “Polarstern” in 2015 dedicated to “Transitions in the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone (TRANSSIZ)” in the European Arctic Ocean within the framework of ART.

• Focused on one ART-lead “Polarstern” cruise, “TRANSSIZ 2016”, preferably in April/May 2016, with the topic “Linking past and present sea ice transitions in the European Arctic – Ecological and biogeochemical early spring process studies”. To study the autumn preconditioning the ART team will integrate with the “TransArc 2015” proposal led by Ursula Schauer, AWI, Germany.

• Discussed how the TRANSSIZ cruise will significantly contribute to improve the ability to answer the three main ART questions. Specifically the cruise will address:

- The cryo-pelagic-benthic coupling from shelf to basin to develop, validate, and compare proxies for sea-ice.
- The environmental preconditions (e.g. nutrients, stratification) for productivity patterns and a shelf to basin transects to identify the potential annual primary production in a future ice-free ocean.
- The transition of winter to spring on ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical cycles as well as transitions across the last glacial cycle.

ART-Polarstern Drafting Meeting

An Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) meeting which was held February 29 – March 1, 2012 at AWI in Bremerhaven, Germany, focused mainly on the design of a collaboration for a full expedition proposal for the German RV “Polarstern” in 2015 dedicated to “Transitions in the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone (TRANSSIZ)” in the European Arctic Ocean within the framework of ART. The draft proposal suggested three legs focusing on ecological and biogeochemical studies on seasonal transitions (winter-spring, fall-winter) in the Eurasian Arctic Ocean. The main objectives are to complement summer data sets and advance biological/ biogeochemical process studies and modeling, calibrate algorithms used in remote sensing and proxies used to interpret sea ice and ocean circulation changes in the geologic past. The North-American members of the ART Executive Committee planned a complementary US-led expedition in the North-American Arctic (Beaufort, Chukchi and towards the basin).

Scientific Highlights

• Discussed the main objectives of the Polarstern expedition which will focus on ecological and biogeochemical studies on seasonal transitions (winter-spring, fall-winter) in the Eurasian Arctic ocean: 1) complement summer data sets 2) advance biological/biogeochemical process studies and modeling 3) calibrate algorithms used in remote sensing and proxies used to interpret sea ice and ocean circulation changes in the geologic past   

• Discussed the international GEOTRACES mission in the Arctic Ocean in 2015, which will aim to get a synoptic view of the large-scale distribution of trace elements and their isotopes in the Arctic Ocean.

• Different AWI groups discussed areas of research interest and possible cooperation, which included sea ice physics, sea ice biology, sea-ice-ocean modeling, phytooptics, physical oceanography, plankton ecology and biogeochemistry in a Changing Arctic Ocean (PEBCAO), macrofauna under sea ice, biogeochemistry, deep sea ecology and technology, and geology.

"Overcoming Barriers to Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling: The Site Survey Challenge"

A Workshop to address Arctic Ocean Scientific Drilling was held 1-3 November 2011 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The workshop was co-chaired by N. Mikkelsen, R. Stein, and B. Coakley.

Workshop Document

Scientific Highlights

• Arctic deep-sea drilling gives means to paleo-oceanographic and climatic records, the tectonic history of the basin. For the development of mature drilling proposals for the Arctic-deep sea drilling, the workshop planned site survey campaigns based on existing and planned proposals and pre-proposals that were developed as a result of the successful 2008 Magellan workshop, "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality."