A coordinated effort involving trailblazing science—and icebreaking ships—from many nations is needed to fill gaps in our understanding of the Arctic Ocean and how it’s changing. Since the International Polar Year (which actually lasted from 2007 to 2010), two truths about the changing Arctic have emerged. First, the ongoing rapid transformation of the Arctic environment will continue for decades, regardless of future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emission levels. Second, the scientific challenges and consequences arising from this transformation are too large to be addressed by a single country alone and too complex to be properly understood through single-discipline research approaches.



Paasche, Ø., Olsen, A., Årthun, M., Anderson, L.G., Wängberg, S.-Å., Ashjian, C.J., Grebmeier, J.M., Kikuchi, T., Nishino, S., Yasunaka, S., Kang,S.-H., Cho, K.-H., Azetsu-Scott, K., Williams, W.J., Carmack, E., Torres-Valdés, S., Tyrrell, T., Edelvang, K., He, J., and H. Kassens









Paasche, Ø., et al. (2019), Addressing Arctic challenges requires a synoptic ocean survey, Eos, 100, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019EO136200. Published on 01 November 2019.



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